Africa faced many unique challenges which made Decolonisation a very difficult process. These were common to most of the new states in Africa.
Many countries were brought together by the sheer military forces of the colonizers. Lack of a common cultural past and tribal belligerence meant that they slaughtered each other inside these artificial boundaries imposed upon them. This led to worst genocides in Nigeria, Congo (Zaire), Burundi and Rwanda.
Cold war rivalry
Since most of them were resource-rich, the two major blocs didn’t want more states slipping into the orbit of its rival power. This led to prolonged civil wars. Eg: Angola, Uganda, Burundi etc.
Colonisers used them as sources of raw materials. So lack of industries and primitive agriculture made them susceptible to Neo-Colonialism. Also, most of their economies were entirely dependent upon the export of one or two commodities. When international prices fell, they plunged into political instability and civil wars. Eg: Nigeria, Ghana, Tanzania, Burundi etc.
Political and Social problems
Most colonial powers refused education to Africans. This led to the deficiency in enlightened leadership and a general faith in democratic means. This meant that most countries plunged into corruption and civil war soon after independence.
Economic and Natural Disasters
Devastating famines of the 1980s and ongoing famines due to climate change are spelling disaster to these countries. These events end up ruining economies and destabilising governments. Through the 90s, the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic also posed a grave threat to these countries. During the last two decades, climate change-induced disasters are seen to affect third world countries, especially those in Africa.GPSC Notes brings Prelims and Mains programs for GPSC Prelims and GPSC Mains Exam preparation. Various Programs initiated by GPSC Notes are as follows:-
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