. Monolithic pillars and capitols made during this period are prime example of Mauryan art. The important places where the pillars have been found are Basarah-Bakhira, Lauriya-Nandangarh, Rampurva, Sankisa and Sarnath. These pillars were carved in two types of stone viz. the spotted red and white sandstone from the region of Mathura and buff-coloured fine grained hard sandstone usually with small black spots quarried inthe Chunar near Varanasi.The uniformity of style in the pillar capitals suggests that they were all sculpted bycraftsmen from the same region. Bull capitol of Rampurva, Lion Capitol of Lauriya-Nandangarh, and Sarnath Capitol, found near Varanasi, are famous examples. The best preserved of all Ashokan edicts stands at Lauriya Nandangarh (Bihar). This thirty-two feet tall column has an almost fifty ton seated lion capital placed on its top.
Sarnath capitol, built in commemoration of the historical event of the first sermon or the Dhammachakrapravartana by the Buddha at Sarnath, is made from sandstone and has four lions, sitting on an abacus with four animals, inverted lotus as a base, a crowning wheel representing theDhammachakrapravartana (which is now damaged) on a monolithic shaft. The four voluminous roaring lion figures firmly stand on a circular abacus which is carvedwith the figures of four animals proceeding clockwise around the drum, suggesting themovement of the wheel of dharma – a striding elephant, a galloping horse, awalking bull and a prancing lion. Four lions placed back-to-back face thecardinal directions, indicating the spread of dharma. The capital without the crowning wheel and the lotus base has been adopted as the National Emblem of Independent India.GPSC Notes brings Prelims and Mains programs for GPSC Prelims and GPSC Mains Exam preparation. Various Programs initiated by GPSC Notes are as follows:-
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