Gujarat: Animal Husbandry
- Animal Husbandry is known as largest occupation adopted in rural India after Agriculture. Animal husbandry plays a vital role in Gujarat’s rural economy, while contributing nearly 5% to the state GSDP. As per livestock census 2007, total livestock population of Gujarat was 237.94 lakh.
- Gujarat has 23 Intensive Cattle Development Projects (ICDP) with 1,078 Breeding Centres in the state which are aimed at improving the breed of cattle and buffaloes. Gujarat also has 12 Intensive Poultry Development Projects (IPDP), 5 District poultry Extension Centres, and 85 Poultry Service Centres. The state of Gujarat has the longest coastline of 1600 km and ranks first among the states in marine fish production with an export of 1.98 lakh tonnes of marine products worth Rs. 2,156 crore.
- Animal husbandry is very ancient and traditional occupation in rural areas. It provides door step employment opportunities to farmers with no or least skills. It helps to woman empowerment by providing constant and regular income to rural women. Out of 101 Lakh families of the state, 42 lakh families (41.58%) are concern with Animal Husbandry occupation, from which 13.60 lakh families (13.46%) are Below Poverty Line (BPL). The Animal Husbandry is the sole income source to such BPL families. Livestock production has significant contribution in Gujarat, as there is substantial increase in livestock products and byproducts. Approximately 31,024 crore income is expected from the livestock sector in Gujarat State in year 2012-13. There is increase in the population of livestock and poultry respectively to 8.55% and 64% in the livestock census of year 2007 as compare to the census of 2003.Total milk production in the state was 101.15 lakh ton in the year 2011-12 which shows growth rate of 5.07% than previous year milk production. Milk production in the country was 1324 lakh ton in the year 2012-13, which shows growth rate of 3.54% than previous year milk production.
- With compare to Agriculture, which provides very fluctuating irregular income, Animal Husbandry provides constant and fixed income and help villages to reduce unemployment.
- Popular Livestock Breeds are as under:
In cattle – Gir and Kankrej
Buffalo breeds – Mahesani, Jafrabadi and Bunny
Goat breeds – Zalawadi, Gohilwadi, Mehsani and Kachchhi.
Sheep breeds – Patanwadi and Marwadi
- Activities of Government department of Animal Husbandry
Veterinary Services and Animal Health
Sheep, Goat and Wool Development
Work Done By Extension Unit and Exhibition Unit
- Gujarat state coverage for the veterinary services like mass immunization, Intensive deworming, castration, Artificial Insemination, SHCcampaign , Mobile veterinary dispensary service for 10 village , Chief Minister’s Free animal treatments at veterinary dispensaries& Polyclinics. Pashu arogya mela , Krishi mahotsav are the major steps taken by Department for animal health care & extension services. Centrally Sponsored programmes like National Dairy Mission, National Dairy plan, ASCAD, FMD-CP, Fodder development programmes , NADRES, RKVY assistance, NMPS are also contributing significantly in the Animal Husbandry sector of the state.
- The 20th Livestock Census (2017) cover all important breedwise species.Cattle, Buffalo, Sheep, Goat, Camel, Pigs, Dogs, and Poultry as well as agriculture equipments used for livestock keeping. (2) The Livestock Census covers all the 18225 Villages including villages in forest areas, 248 Talukas, 33 Districts, 162 Nagarpalikas & 8 Maha Nagarpalikas.
- The animal health care is more important for all over economic growth in Gujarat state. For veterinary Services 675 Veterinary Dispensaries, 45 Mobile Veterinary Dispensaries, 27 Branch Veterinary Dispensary, 552 First aid veterinary Centers, 32 Veterinary polyclinics and One Biological Product Station-Gandhinagar are working at present. Still these facilities are not available in the interior villages, 120 Mobile Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory Ambulance Van cum Veterinary Dispensaries are established & attached with veterinary Dispensary.
- A New Scheme of “Mobile Veterinary Dispensary per 10 Villages” was established in the year 2015- 16.Under this scheme 230 M.V.D. were came into existence. The objective of this scheme is to provide veterinary services at village level through mobile vehicle in each 10 villages of respective Vet. Dispensary by different prescribed route. The coverage of livestock unit per institution is around 13771.
- For the control of emerging diseases of livestock and poultry, 17 Diseases Diagnostic Units, 2 Epidemiology Units and one Foot and Mouth typing unit are working in the State. There are number of emerging and re-emerging livestock diseases like P.P.R, Brucellosis, Leptospirosis and Blue tongue. In poultry, diseases like Infectious Bursal Disease, Ranikhet and Salmonellosis are also more important to control them at present.
- The epidemiology units at state level are required to strengthen with necessary infrastructure facilities like equipment, man power and computerization etc. For sustainable animal breeding and health program, suitable Centrally Sponsored scheme should be introduced. The man power engaged in high technical work should be trained at central level and also in well-developed institution. Rinderpest Surveillance & Monitoring Program in Gujarat State The Indian Animal Health care industry is in the process of great transformation with an objective to increase livestock production by health care and scientific management. Rinderpest – a cattle plague, was greatest challenge for the globe and created a lot of economic loss in last century. Now globally eradicated. Rinderpest is the first animal disease in India which is eradicated. With concrete efforts, effective vaccine, sufficient inputs, etc, India got a proud of “Rinderpest free country”.
- Gujarat has shown all kind of alertness in implementation of the project. Due to active efforts at various levels, no outbreak of Rinderpest disease has been reported after 1988 in Gujarat State. Gujarat state is located in Western Region of India. It has area of 196024 square kilometers and Livestock population of 74.23 lakh cattle and 71.40 lakh buffaloes. The state has 33 districts and it has adjoining borders with the state of Maharashtra on South, Rajasthan on North and Madhyapradhesh on Eastern direction. State has international border with Pakistan in Rann of Kachchh , Banaskantha and Patan. Gujarat is having large sea coast of nearly 1600 Km. State is richly endowed with Kankrej and Gir breeds of cattle and Surati , Mahesani and Jafrabadi breeds of buffalo. Rinderpest is the most dreaded viral disease (Plague) of Livestock mainly cattle, buffalo, sheep , goat , domestic pigs and wild ruminants , which had caused average death toll of 10 lacs animals annually during past years in India in early and middle era of 19th Century.
- Cattle and Buffalo Development
- Gujarat State has a noteworthy position in the country as far as livestock wealth and dairy development is concerned. Animal Husbandry and Dairy sector contributes about 5.08 % share to the Gross State Domestic Product. Gujarat is lucky to have high yielding indigenous breed of cattle and buffalo. Gir and Kankrej breed of Cattle and Mahesani, Jafarabadi and Banni breed of buffalo are well known for their high yielding capacity. Kankrej bullocks are known for their sawaichal. Indigenous livestock breeds were developed for their utility under a certain set of agro-climatic condition and have developed some unique traits. Conservation of these breeds is to be done in a way that they may yield the greatest sustainable benefits to present generation, while maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspiration of future generation. The best way to conserve these resources is within their native environment with the help of livestock livestock owners and nongovernment organizations. Emphasis is laid on improving the performance of local breeds through improve germ plasm through selective breeding, improving feeding resources and adequate health coverage.
- The institutional herd maintain at Research Stations/university/State Breeding Farm/Bull Mother Farm etc. are constantly strengthened both in terms of superior germ plasm as well as modern tools and techniques. Considerable success has been made in conservation of our native breeds, this has been possible through breeders association and keeping proper records. Central Herd Registration Scheme has been launched by the central government for registration of outstanding animals in their respective home tract. It has become imperative to form breedwise breeders association and at present Breeder Association for Banni, Mahesani, Surti and Jafarabadi buffalo are working for conservation of particular breed. Farmers are participating in state milk yield competition and central herd registration scheme and high yielding animals are provided incentives in terms of cash prizes and certificates. This helps in conservation and improvement of the breeds in their home tract. Scheme for conservation and improvement of Cattle and Buffalo.
- Cattle Breeding Farms :- The state government has established 4 cattle breeding farms for Gir and Kankrej Cattle to improve its genetic potentials in terms of milk production. Junagadh Agricultural University has one farm for Gir Cattle at junagadh. Animals of others breeds are also reared at livestock research station of all four agricultural Universities in the state. The state Government Farms make continuous affords for improvement of our breeds. Bulls of superior genetic potentials are raised at these farms for breeding. The bulls so reared are supplied to the state semen centers for A.I. activities and also to the Jilla panchayat, Gaushala and private breeders at nominal cost of Rs.1500 for natural services. The farms also provide basic veterinary services like A.I., first aid, sexual health care, castration and vaccination to the nearby villages. Various extension activities likes Shibirs, Gramsabha, training in animal breeding and management, film shows etc. are also conducted by the farms to impact scientific knowledge to the cattle owner.
- Milk Yield Competition : – State level Milk Yield Competition of different breeds are organized to locate high yielding animals to encourage farmers for scientific animal husbandry activities. Winners in the Competitions are given cash prizes and certificates as incentives. Total target for 2016-17 was 1500 and achievement was 1534.
- Technical Training Centre :- Refreshment training program for artificial insemination for livestock inspector and field veterinarians are organized by department at Technical Training Centre, Morbi.
- Sankalp Patra Scheme: – Department of A.H. organizes sexual health camps. The target for 2016-17 was 900 sexual health camps and achievement was 664 sexual health camps where 293733 animal were treated .
- Interest Subsidy Scheme for 1 to 4 Animals Unit: – Dairy farming is an important source of constant subsidiary income. The small farmer’s can purchase 1 to 4 animals as per their need and capacity to maintain. Animal owner gets 12% interest subsidy on the loan amount (as per NABARD unit cost) which he has borrowed to purchase 1 to 4 animals from bank for 5 years. During 2016-17 ` 100.00 lacs was utilized for interest subsidy. During the year 2016-17 total application received 901 out of them 406 were sanctioned for subsidy.
Poultry Production in the State
- The Poultry Production Program can be classified in the state, at present, as under.
- Backyard unorganized self-reliant units :-
Here the farmers keep few birds with minimum inputs. The units are mostly found all over the rural area especially in tribal and backward areas.
- Middle level farms :-
These are the units having started as subsidiary occupation. They are not unorganized and require physical and financial support from the Government. They are located in the pre-urban, urban and rural areas spread all over the state depending mostly on the inputs provided by the government. After getting enough expertise and efficiency over the years, these units are also converted into commercial units and join the organized sector.
- Organized units :-
The units having 5000 birds to 50,000 birds are generally located at various poultry pockets spread all over the state. The success of poultry farming depends upon land, human resources, skill and capital. The poultry Production can be classified into two segments. Egg production at present, egg production is largely in the field of organized sector. This program runs under highly scientific way with the cage system of housing facilities. Large no. of layer per units ranging from 5000 to 50,000 layers have been estimated. The units consume high inputs and output. Broiler Production Demand from poultry meat in relation to mutton, pork, beef and fish is growing for economical reasons. With consumer revolution of fast food and instant cooking in urban areas, a range of easy to cook and tasty to eat delicious food are becoming popular. Strict layer units are also converted into profitable broiler units. In the broiler production program, competition is very tough and the fittest only can survive. The efficiency and economic soundness are the most important criteria for the successful operation.
Sheep, Goat and Wool Development
- Sheep population is 17.07 lac in Gujarat as per livestock census – 2012. More than 70% of sheep & goats are reared by small/marginal farmers and landless labors. Major portion of sheep population is in Saurastra and North Gujrat. Sheep and wool development activities of the state have significant improvement, because the population of the sheep is almost 8.47% of the total livestock population in the state and it has tremendous scope for further expansion. There are six District Extension Centers, three Intensive Sheep Development Projects, one Large Scale Sheep Breeding Farm and two Migratory Sheep and Goat Service Centers are being run in the state, which provides technical and extension services like Treatment, Vaccination, Drenching, Dusting, Castration, etc. to the sheep and goat breeders of the state. Also, there are four Sheep Breeding Farms in the State. The GSWDC provides all necessary marketing facilities for the sale of wool and other by-products.
Breeds of sheep
There are three breeds of sheep viz ; Patanwadi, Marwadi and Dumba in the state.
The breed is well known for Roman nose character, brown to dark brown colour of face extended up to the neck and all four legs below knee and hock. It possesses low set body with pinched hip and pendulous abdomen. The ears are twisted, tubular and of medium length. Flower appendages are quite common. The breed is polled.
The breed resembles black-headed Persian sheep but is smaller in size and has good fleece. Hard nature of Marwadi breeds which has been useful in migration during frequent drought periods.
Dumba animals are heavy in body and good milk yielder. Dumba sheep are found in Jamnagar and Rajkot district.
Programs & Schemes Sheep Breeding Farms:
- Traditional breeder propagate their sheep stock by selective breeding using their own collective ancestral wisdom. Department of Animal Husbandry has adopted selective breeding for improvement in Patanwadi and Marwadi sheep. Improved pure breed ram of higher genetic merit is available at four Sheep breeding farms and distributed to breeder.
- Conservation & propagation of pure breed is main object of sheep farm. The pure breed adult ram produced on these farms are being distributed to breeder at nominal cost. The ram produced at breeder flock are also certified for breeding purpose. Certification and distribution of ram is through Sheep Service Centers of Intensive Sheep Development Projects (ISDP), Migratory Sheep-Goat Service Centers and Sheep Extension Centers. Training is being given to Maldharies for scientific sheep breeding & rearing. Goat development: Goat population in the state is nearly 46.40 laces which are about 130% more than the sheep population in the state. The main breed of Goat in Gujarat are Kachchhi, Mahesani, Surati, Zhalawadi and Gohilwadi.
- Conservation & propagation of pure breed is main object of Goat farm. The pure breed adult buck produce on these farms are distributed to breeder at nominal cost. Goats are reared and bred by selective breeding at the farm. There is one National Goat Demonstration unit functioning at Morbi, which provides suitable demonstration for the local goat breeder. Goat is domesticated for meat and milk. Subsidy is given to Scheduled Caste people for the establishment of Goat units (10+1) in special component scheme. Subsidy is given for goat unit (40+4) to widow & divorcee of Scheduled tribe female for the establishment of Goat units. Goat can thrive in areas where fodder resources are limited where milch cattle do not thrive. The goat has ability of thrive on a class of fodder on which other animal starve to death. Goat is considered as poor man’s cow. Economic efficiency of goat over sheep is well documented. It is found that goat is 160% more economic than sheep and 130% more economical than cattle on zero input basis. Goat has remarkably high feed efficiency both for meat and milk production.
- Kathiawadi and Marwadi are two important horse breed of Gujarat. Kathiawadi horses are found mostly in Saurastra region and Marwadi horses are found mostly in north Gujarat. Animal Husbandry Dept. of Gujarat State has undertaken a program for creating awareness amongst the horse keepers regarding scientific horse keeping. For the preservation and propagation of valuable germplasm of Kathiwadi horse, Department of Animal Husbandry, Gujarat state has established one horse breeding farm at Inaj, Ta: Veraval. Dist.GirSomnath. Horse breeding farm for Marwadi breed is established at Chanasma Dist.-Patan. Breeding and other technical services are provided to the horse keepers through 12 Stallion Service Centers. In Gujarat state, Kathiawadi and Marwadi horse care taker association organizes exhibition and competition of horses in collaboration with the State Govt. Horse Shows are also organized by Horse Society which are selected by government with financial assistant by the State Govt. The good horses can be identified during such competitions.
- Generally two types of domesticated donkeys are seen in Gujarat i.e. White coloured and Ash coloured (Bhagra). Ash coloured donkeys have black strip on the back. This black strip of 9-10 inches extends vertically from withers to the shoulders on either side. This strip extends right from the neck base up to the tail base. They are short with long ears that stand erect. The white donkeys are totally white. The good donkeys have height of 10-12 hands. Their ears are high, large and are such that hollow portion can be seen from the front side. The legs are thick, strong and proportionately long. In Gujarat, a fair organizes every year at ‘Vautha’ in Dholka Taluka. This fair is very famous for sale of donkeys and also for race competition of donkeys. Department of AH is established a donkey breeding farm for the purpose of pure bred white Donkey production at Chanasma Dist-Patan.
- Camel is an important component of desert ecosystem. It possesses many unique qualities which make it distinctly superior than other domesticated animals in the hot and arid desert ecosystem. In the Indian dry land farming systems, the camel is a major source of power for transport and agricultural activities. It also provides milk, hair, hide, manure, bones and meat to the societies.
- Gujarat is best owed with Kachhchhi camel. Kachcchi breed is very old and pristine breed and lightly built compared to Bikaneri. Its body coat is light brown in colour. It has thin neck, small closely set mouth with small ears and prominent eyes. Muzzle is barred. Kachchhi camels are good milk producer and can pull weight of 1600 kg with speed of 5km/hour. It works with 0.75 to 1.32 HP energy. For pulling 1.4 -1.8 MT load for 4 hours a day, its dry matter requirement is 1.8 -2.00% of body weight. Gujarat state has a camel breeding farm located at Dhori, Dist: Kachchh for the conservation and propagation of Kachchhi breed.
- Good camels are provided to the army and police force and also to private farmer for camel cart. Efforts are made to conserve breed characteristics of camels on these farms. Establishment of Camel Breeder’s Association named-Kachchh Unt Ucherak Maldhari Sangathan is organized. Recently a new breed of Camel in Gujarat “Kharai” is registered by NBGAR, Karnnal. Kharai camel are able to survive in dual ecosystem (sea water and on desert land) of kachchh region.Kharai camel also swimming in water, its body coat is mostly browen white mix (charvo) and dark black.It has large head, thich neck , erect ears with tip slightly curved inside , small and short chest pad and longer and softer hair.
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