Gujarat – Irrigation and Hydropower

Gujarat – Irrigation and Hydropower


 Gujarat – Irrigation and Hydropower


Types of water resources of Gujarat State


(1)   Surface Water and (2) Underground Water

The main source of water for Gujarat is surface water. The State has 185 river basins and the available quota of water in the State is 55608 million cubic meters, out of which, 38100 million cubic meters is surface water, which is only 2% of the entire quota of surface water of the country. Moreover, the available quota of surface water is also not distributed properly. Gujarat, Saurashtra and Kutch have water resources of 89%, 9% and 2% respectively, against this, the total geographical area of these regions is 45%, 31% and 24% respectively. The underground water resources of State are 17508 million cubic meters.
The quota of available surface and underground water is used for drinking purpose, industries, agriculture and hydral power, fisheries etc. Out of which, nearly 80% quota is used for agricultural production, in which irrigation also plays an important role.
·         Details of surface water and ground water resources of Gujarat


ð  The total geographical area of Gujarat is 196 lakh hector, out of which, 124.5 lakh hector is cultivable land.
ð  Before independence, only 51000 hector area of the State was having a facility of irrigation. After Gujarat’s formation, at the end of the second Five Year Play, irrigation was made available to 4.04 lakh hector of land up to 1960-61. Out of this, the maximum irrigation usage was limited up to 1.77 lakh hector area. However, after that the State gave priority to the programme of irrigation potential creation, which resulted in creation of irrigation potential to the area of almost 51.00 lakh hector and maximum irrigation usage has reached to 44.00 lakh hector of land.
ð  North Gujarat, Saurashtra and Kutch regions of the State are scarcity-prone areas having a famine condition almost every two to three years, whereas the South Gujarat faces a heavy damage human life and property due to flood situation almost every year. Moreover, valuable quota of water drains out in the ocean. The State has faced severe famines during 1972-73, 1985-88 and 1999-2000. In the year 2001, it was decided to provide drinking water through pipelines in the scarcity-hit areas of Bhal in Ahmedabad and several areas of Bhavnagar, Amreli and Junagadh from the river Mahi. Moreover, a pipeline has been set up from Raska Weir to Kotarpur Water Works for providing drinking water to the city of Ahmedabad on war-footing basis. Moreover, the work of providing drinking water through 113.17 kms. long pipeline of different length at four different places from the Narmada main canal is also under progress.
Thus, the State has always been vigilant and sensitive towards the hardship of drinking water being faced by the people of Gujarat from ages during the famine years. To avoid such occurrences in future on permanent basis, the State is willing to take the following measures: –
To create maximum water resources or water base through check-dams, small, medium and large irrigation schemes at all possible places.


Utilize water economically by using the alternative shift system of water usages for irrigation made available through reservoirs.


To bring awareness amongst the farmers for water conservation through various irrigation systems by discreet use of underground and surface water.


To prevent loss of water through evaporation in the reservoirs located in the areas facing famine and which have less preservation capacity.


Setting up Khet Talavadis and deepening existing lakes/ponds.


Setting up Water harvesting Structures, especially check dams in all possible places for saving every drop of water.


To take care at the planning stage itself regarding drinking water during preparing irrigation schemes/projects proposed under the National Water Policy.


To plan for ling canals and implement the same for inter-basin transfer of water.


Under the Sujalam-Sufalam Scheme,Prevent water being drained from the Kadana reservoir during the monsoon and divert it to spreading canals for brining the water level up and recharge the underground water.


Save electricity used in farming

Promote agro-industries


Make available the irrigation and drinking water facility through underground water


Create khet talavadi and preserve the water of a particular farm in the same farm.


Before independence, irrigation was possible through only two large-scale irrigation projects viz. Hathmati Project and Kharicut Project. After independence, construction was undertaken for irrigation projects such as Shetrunji, Dantiwada, Kakrapar Weir, Ukai, Kadana, Dharoi, Vanakbori Weir etc. and at the end of 2012-13, 19 major and 70 medium irrigation projects have been completed. Moreover, more than 1000 minor irrigation projects have also been completed. Upto 2012-13, under Water Conservation Project, nearly 1,59,000 check dams have been constructed. Gujarat is determined to keep pace with the development of the nation and with a view to providing benefits of various irrigation schemes to the tribal people living in the remotest area and to providing maximum benefit of irrigation schemes to the entire farmer fraternity, the State is committed to complete various irrigation schemes which are on the verge of completion.


  • Water Resources Development: The ultimate irrigation potential through the surface water is assessed at 47.88 lakh hectares which includes 17.92 lakh hectares through Sardar Sarovar (Narmada) Project. Similarly in respect of ground water resources, it is estimated that about 20.04 lakh hectares can be irrigated. Thus total ultimate irrigation potential through surface & ground water is estimated to be 67.92 lakh hectares. The total irrigation potential of surface water created upto June-2016 works out to 88.14 percent of ultimate irrigation.Potential whereas maximum utilization works out to 67.00 percent of the irrigation potential created.


  • Participatory Irrigation Management: The Government has decided to cover maximum possible command area under Participatory Irrigation Management. The Government has also passed “Gujarat Water Users Participatory Irrigation Management Act­2007”. Under this scheme 542542 hactare and 1769 Water Users Associations have been covered at the end of March-2016. During the year 2016-17 (upto September-2016), 13134 ha. more area and 63 Water Users Associations have been covered. Hence, under this scheme 555676 hectare and 1832 Water Users Associations have been covered upto September-2016.


  • Reservoirs Level: As on 2nd December-2016, out of total 203 dams with total storage capacity of 15774.24 million cubic metres, 45 dams (having storage capacity of 12905.15 million cubic metres) are in Gujarat region that includes south, north and central Gujarat area, 20 dams (having storage capacity of

332.02 million cubic metres) are in Kachchh region and 138 dams (having storage capacity of 2537.07 million cubic metres) are in Saurashtra region. As on 2nd December, 2016, the gross water storage in the reservoirs was 11643.13 million cubic metres, which was 73.81 percent against the total storage capacity.


Sardar Sarovar Project


The Sardar Sarovar Project is a multipurpose project, which envisages construction of concrete gravity dam across the river Narmada in Narmada District, two power houses viz. River Bed Power House (RBPH) and Canal Head Power House (CHPH) with a combined installed capacity of 1450 MW and 458 kms long main canal with a discharge capacity of 40000 cusecs at starting point and 2500 cusecs at Gujarat-Rajasthan border with a network of 71748 kms. for water distribution system for irrigation.


The project is expected to provide irrigation benefits in over 75 talukas of 17 districts in the State. It is also envisaged to provide water in more than 9490 villages and 173 townships for domestic purpose as well as for industrial uses. About three-fourth of the command area under this project is drought prone as defined by the Irrigation Commission.


The revised cost estimate of this project at 2014-15 price is Rs.54772.93 crore. A cumulative expenditure of Rs. 52790.60 crore including Rs. 37127.87 crore on work components was incurred by the end of March-2016. During the year 2016-17 (up to October-2016) an expenditure of Rs. 3495.52 crore including Rs. 3296.15 crore on works components has been incurred. Thus, cumulative expenditure incurred upto October-2016 on this project is Rs. 56286.12 crore including Rs. 40424.02 crore on work components.


The revised cost estimates of the project amounting to Rs. 54772.93 crore at 2014-15 price level has been approved in the meeting of Advisory Committee of Ministry of Water Resource, GoI.


Command Area Development : The new Policy for construction of Sub-minors is available for both the options namely Open Channel Gravity (OCG) system and Underground Pipe Line System (UGPL). During the last 18 months, more than 6 lakh farmers have been consulted and tri-partite agreements have been executed. As a result 5.91 lakh hectare have been developed for irrigation in the April-2015 to November-2016 by UGPL. Additional area of 5 lakh hectare is planned to cover by end of the year 2017-18. This progress is unprecedented in the history of irrigation infrastucture development in the whole country.


Different Irrigation schemes


Narmada Project
After independence, a survey was conducted for setting up a dam on the river Narmada. In 1979, the Narmada Water Dispute Commission sanctioned height of dam up to 455 feet and the construction was initiated after obtaining approval of the Environment Department in 1987 and Planning Commission in 1988. In 76th meeting of the Narmada Control Authority held at New Delhi on 8.3.2006, sanction was given to increase the height of the spillway block from 110.64 mtrs to 121.92 meters and work was started in 9.3.2006 and completed in 31.12.2006. After completion of project 15 districts, 73 talukas and 3137 village covering 1792 lac hactors will get irrigation facility. Moreover, 8215 villages and 135 urban areas will get drinking water facility through this Project.


Kalpsar Project 
The surplus waters of river Narmada, river Mahi and river Sabarmati converges in the ocean. For using this water, the State Government has envisaged and implemented the Kalpsar Project.

Kalpsar is a large project and is an ambitious project of the State Government. It extends the benefits of the Sardar Sarovar (Narmada) to the people of the State. This project is a multi-purpose and long-term project covering usage of the surplus waters of the rivers of Central Gujarat region viz. Sabarmati, Mahi, Dhadhar and Narmada, which will require large financial investment as well as need for efficient and skilled engineering work and new technology. The waters of these rivers will be stored in the Bay of Khambhat. It is envisaged to produce 5880 mw. Tidal power and 90 crore cubic meters drinking water per annum for the population of 3.6 crore in the 10.545 lakh hector area. Moreover, a transport facility will be created between Dahej and Ghogha, which will reduce the distance of almost 225 kms. from Saurashtra to Central Gujarat.


Sujalam-Sufalam Scheme
To bring permanent solution of the issues of water and food in Gujarat, an ambitious project has been undertaken by the State Government. This project, called Sujalam Sufalam will bring solution of age old problems of famine in 10 districts which do not have irrigation facilities. A brief outline of the project is s follows: –


Planning of 337 kms. long Sujalam Sufalam Spreading Canal from Kadan dam to Banas River Basin, which will rejuvenate 21 rivers and many ponds.


Filling up of nine reservoirs of North Gujarat by 1 million acre feet water by uplifting and transporting water from Narmada Main Canal through pipelines.


Planning of distribution line network joining Narmada Main Canal and Sujalam Sufalam Canal.


Increasing irrigation facilities of two tribal districts viz. Panchmahal and Dahod through Kadana Left Bank High Level Canal and Panam Reservoir High Level Canal.


Make efforts to resolve irrigation problems in Katch by constructing 1000 check dams, 15 tidal regulators, 33 weirs, 19 recharge ponds, 150 recharge wells etc.


Bring water of river Narmada to dry land of Surendranagar for rejuvenating the dry basin of the area by contructing 107 new large check dams across 17 rivers.


Check-Dam Work


After the famine years of 1986-87 to 1989 and irregular and scarce rainfall in the next few years, limited system of recharge of underground water, reduction of the surface water etc., more and more underground water was required and as a result, the underground water level declined at rapid rate every year in the State. Moreover, due to failure of monsoon in 1999-2000, most of the reservoirs and dams of Kutch, North Gujarat and Saurashtra remained empty, which resulted in acute shortage of drinking water in the State.


This resulted in a grave problem of supplying drinking water in the urban and rural areas of the State. The State Government, after careful consideration, undertook a massive exercise of preventing the excess rainfall water being drained in the ocean by preserving this precious water in possible areas by recharging the underground water, through construction of check dams and deepening existing tanks. For this project, in January, 2000, the State decided to prepare 2500 check dams in the State at a cost of Rs. 100 crore under the “Sardar Patel Participator Water Conservation Project”, which received an overwhelming response. After construction of check dams, in five districts of Saurashtra, the underground water level has come up to the extent of 0.65 mtrs. to 13.30 mtrs. Under this project, nearly 76477 check dams have been constructed upto March 2013. Total 88312 check-dams have been constructed by the Water Resources Department under various schemes.

The said check-dams have been constructed with public private participation. Earlier, peoples’ groups, voluntary institutions and donors used to bear 40% of the expenditure and Government’s share was 60%. This ratio has not been changed to 80:20 by the Government. The check dams are constructed by the group or institute decided. The objective behind this is to prepare and construct a check dam with less expenditure. As people themselves construct the check-dam, they take enough care in construction of the check dam and prevent involvement of vested interests and misappropriation of money. This scheme has also been largely welcomed by the people of the State.

The work of the check dams / achievement has been evaluated by I.I.M., an autonomous institute of Ahmedabad, which has brought encouraging results.


Proper use of the reservoir / river / spill water
The additional / spill water of the rivers of Central and South Gujarat drain out in the ocean every year in large quantity. It is essential to utilize this water, so that the future demand of water can be met with. Water of some of the rivers of South Gujarat having ample quota of water such as Damanganga, Par, Tapi etc. can be utilized for the dry and famine hit areas of Gujarat through Par-Tapi-Narmada Link Project and studies have been carried out in this direction as well.


Pipeline Project for filling existing dams and small ponds of North Gujarat by the waters of Narmada Main Canal


The Government has accepted in principal, a Rs. 2506.32 crore project of filling reservoirs/ponds of North Gujarat with 1.00 million acre feet excess flood waters of Narmada river during famine situation in North Gujarat through uplifting link canal pipeline on 27.8.2001. Under this project planning of 14 pipelines,


  • pipelines completed,

2 pipelines under progress and

4 pipelines under plans & estimate stage.

  • Dharoi Left and Right Bank Canal Extension Project
  • The total piyat area of Sabarmati Reservoir (Dharoi) Project is 61085 hector, out of
  • which, the piyat area of right bank main canal (Mehsana district) is 48105 hector and
  • left bank main canal (Sabarkantha district) is 12980 hector.
  • Possibilities were examined to extend/increase piyat area in the Mehsana and Sabarkantha districts by making available surplus water for Ahmedabad city from the Dharoi reservoir. Accordingly, upon making available the excess quota of 8814 million cubic meters of water from Dharoi reservoir, the existing piyat area of Mehsana and Sabarkantha can be increased. On distributing the quota of waters of left bank canal and right bank canal in the piyat area (80:20), nearly 5262 million cubic feet excess water can be provided for Mehsana district, which will provide irrigation facilities to additional 30387 hectors of cultivable land (CCA) which will further provide lift irrigation facility to 6500 hectors cultivable land (CCA) of 22 villages through right bank canal extension and to 23887 hectors cultivable land (CCA) of Idar taluka. Estimated expenditure of both these extension projects will be Rs. 55.00 crore and Rs. 38.00 crore respectively for right bank and left bank.

    4 talukas of Mehsana, 3 taluka of Patan and 1 taluka (Mansa) of Gandhinagar district will get irrigation facilities from this right bank extension project. Moreover, 12309 hector land of Mehsana, 11508 hector land of Patan and 70 hector land of Gandhinagar will get benefit of additional irrigation by this project. The existing canals of right bank have been made looking to the post Narmada condition, by which the water-carrying capacity of the canal can be increased. The farmers will have to make lift irrigation at their own expenses by not making irrigation by water flow in the proposed additional piyat area of this right canal. Two branch canals, ten obituaries and eight minor branches have been made from the right bank extension main canal, out of which, 95% work have been completed and 201 hector of land have been irrigated curing the Rabi irrigation season.

  • Salinity Ingress Prevention and Control

Recommendations were made by a High Level Committee for the constructions of tidal regulators and weirs near the ocean bank, recharge tanks, recharge reservoirs, recharge wells, check-dams and spreading channel etc. near the sea const. to prevend salinity ingress in the underground water. Allocation of Rs. 200 crore has been made for salinity ingress prevention schemes of Gujarat under the States Special Needs under the 12th Financial Commission similarly, allocation of Rs. 150 crore has been made by GOI for salinity ingress prevention scheme under 13 the finance commission.


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