Antiquity and stratification of the Vedic literature; Society, economy and religion during Early (Rig-Vedic) period.

Although the Rig Veda deals with devotional work of religious nature, yet it gives a vivid picture of the early Vedic civilization. The Vedic Civilization is best understood from the social life, political organisation, economic life and religious beliefs. The Kula or family was the basic unit of Rig-Vedic society. The Kula was headed by … Read more

Famous Inscriptions

  Inscription King Aspect Junagarh Rock Rudradaman (Saka) Sanskrit. Says that a dam on the sudarshana lake was constructed by Pushyagupta a governor of Chandragupta Maurya Allahabad Pillar Samudragupta Sanskrit. Composed by Harisena Aihole Inscription Pulakeshin II Mentions Harsha defeat by Pulakeshin II. Composed by Ravikriti Vishnuvardan son of King. Gwalior Inscription Bhoja Most famous … Read more

Major Monuments of Ancient Period

1. Udaygiri Caves During Chandragupta’s reign at Vidisha, M.P. 2. Angorwatt Temples Suryavarman Ii 3. Vikramashila University Pala King Dharampala 4. Kailash Temple (Ellora) Rashtrakuta king Krishna I 5. Dilwara Temple Tejapala 6. Rathas of Mamallapuram Mahendravarman I (Pallava King) 7. Khajuraho temples Chandelas 8. Martanda temple (Kashmir) Lalitaditya Muktapida 9. Gommateswara  (Son of Rishabnath) … Read more

Art, Culture, Literature and Architecture

Harappan art 2500 1800 BC

  • Also known as the bronze age
  • Architecture refers to designing of and construction of buildings where are the sculpture is a three-dimensional work of art
  • In architecture ,various types of materials are used that is a stone , wood, glass, metal  etc .where as sculpture is made of single piece of material.
  • Architecture involves study of engineering And Engineering Mathematics and depends upon measurements, where as sculpture involves creativity and imagination , may not depend on measurements.

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Origin of the Aryans

    The Aryans came to India in several waves. The earliest wave is represented by the Rig Vedic people who appeared in the subcontinent in about 1500 BC. They came into conflict with the indigenous inhabitants called the Dravidians mentioned as Dasa or Dasyus in Rig Veda. The Rig Veda mentions the defeat of … Read more

Harsha-Vardhan : The last great Hindu ruler of Northern India; cultural achievements during his period.

Emperor Harshavardhana, better known as Harsha, lived from 590 to 647 CE and was the third ruler of the Vardhana Empire, the last great empire in ancient India before the Islamic Invasion. He ruled from 606 CE to 647 CE. After Harshavardhana’s death, however, the Vardhana dynasty came to an end and its empire dissolved. India, the land beyond the … Read more

Salient features of Architecture – Forts and Monuments

The architecture of Rajasthan is mainly based on the Rajput school of architecture which was a blend of the Hindu and Mughal structural design. The stupendous forts, the intricately carved temples and the grand havelis of the state are integral parts of the architectural heritage of the state. The Rajputs were prolific builders. Some of … Read more


Empathy: Definition The term “empathy” is used to describe a wide range of experiences. Emotion researchers generally define empathy as the ability to sense other people’s emotions, coupled with the ability to imagine what someone else might be thinking or feeling. Contemporary researchers often differentiate between two types of empathy: “Affective empathy” refers to the sensations … Read more